XtaLAB Synergy-R is the most powerful microfocus single crystal X-ray diffractometer available, combining components to allow you to collect high quality diffraction data. Moreover, the XtaLAB Synergy-R offers a number of design features that extend the experimental flexibility to address the most challenging samples. The XtaLAB Synergy-R system is a tightly integrated single crystal X-ray diffractometer with four basic areas of technology: a high-flux, low-maintenance PhotonJet-R X-ray source with continuously variable divergence slit, a high-precision kappa goniometer and Rigaku’s Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC) X-ray detector, the HyPix-6000HE with extremely low noise and high dynamic range, and the CrysAlis Pro diffraction software package with sophisticated algorithms to tie the hardware together to minimize the time it takes to measure and solve single crystal X-ray structures.
- High source flux and increased goniometer speed to allow faster experiments
- Unique telescopic two-theta arm to reach both longer and shorter crystal-to-detector distances
- Enhanced kappa goniometer design with symmetrical 2θ positioning
- Improved X-ray optic alignment mechanism for easy maintenance
- User-inspired cabinet design for improved workflow
- New electronically controlled brightness of cabinet and crystal lighting
- Fast workflow due to complete integration of software and hardware
- Extremely high performance due to bright source, noise-free detector and fast goniometer speeds
- Continuously variable divergence lets you resolve reflections from long unit cells.
- Compact design to fit in your laboratory
- Cryostream 800 (Oxford Cryosystems)
- Cobra (Oxford Cryosystems)
- Product name: XtaLAB Synergy-R
- Technique: Single crystal X-ray diffraction
- Benefit: 3D structural analysis for molecules and macromolecules
- Technology: High-flux single crystal X-ray diffractometer
- Core attributes: X-ray diffractometer with rotating anode X-ray source, kappa goniometer, HPC detector
- Core options: Cryostream or Cobra coolers (Oxford Cryosystems), XtalCheck-S
- Computer: External PC, MS Windows, CrysAlis Pro
- Core dimensions: 130,0 (W) x 187,5 (H) x 85,0 (D) cm
- Mass: 600 kg (core unit)
- Power requirements: 1Ø, 200-230 V, 20 A
Crystals are regular arrays of atoms, and X-rays can be considered waves of electromagnetic radiation. Atoms scatter X-ray waves, primarily through the atoms’ electrons. Just as an ocean wave striking a lighthouse produces secondary circular waves emanating from the lighthouse, so an X-ray striking an electron produces secondary spherical waves emanating from the electron. This phenomenon is known as elastic scattering, and the electron (or lighthouse) is known as the scatterer. A regular array of scatterers produces a regular array of spherical waves. Although these waves cancel one another out in most directions through destructive interference, they add constructively in a few specific directions, determined by Bragg’s law. X-ray diffraction results from an electromagnetic wave (the X-ray) impinging on a regular array of scatterers (the repeating arrangement of atoms within the crystal). X-rays are used to produce the diffraction pattern because their wavelength is typically the same order of magnitude (1–100 angstroms) as the spacing between planes in the crystal. In principle, any wave impinging on a regular array of scatterers produces diffraction, as predicted first by Francesco Maria Grimaldi in 1665. To produce significant diffraction, the spacing between the scatterers and the wavelength of the impinging wave should be similar in size. For illustration, the diffraction of sunlight through a bird’s feather was first reported by James Gregory in the later 17th century. The first artificial diffraction gratings for visible light were constructed by David Rittenhouse in 1787, and Joseph von Fraunhofer in 1821. However, visible light has too long a wavelength (typically, 5500 angstroms) to observe diffraction from crystals. Prior to the first X-ray diffraction experiments, the spacings between lattice planes in a crystal were not known with certainty.The idea that crystals could be used as a diffraction grating for X-rays arose in 1912 in a conversation between Paul Peter Ewald and Max von Laue in the English Garden in Munich. Ewald had proposed a resonator model of crystals for his thesis, but this model could not be validated using visible light, since the wavelength was much larger than the spacing between the resonators. Von Laue realized that electromagnetic radiation of a shorter wavelength was needed to observe such small spacings, and suggested that X-rays might have a wavelength comparable to the unit-cell spacing in crystals. Von Laue worked with two technicians, Walter Friedrich and his assistant Paul Knipping, to shine a beam of X-rays through a copper sulfate crystal and record its diffraction on a photographic plate. After being developed, the plate showed a large number of well-defined spots arranged in a pattern of intersecting circles around the spot produced by the central beam. Von Laue developed a law that connects the scattering angles and the size and orientation of the unit-cell spacings in the crystal, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914.