- Electron Microscopy (EM)
- Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS)
- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
- Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS)
- Digital Optical Microscopy (OM)
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) are used for inspecting topographies of materials with a magnification range that encompasses that of optical microscopy and extends it to the nanoscale.