With your success utmost in their minds, engineers from Rigaku Oxford Diffraction have developed the XtaLAB Synergy diffractometer for single crystal X-ray diffraction. Using a combination of leading edge components and user-inspired software tied together through a highly parallelized architecture, the XtaLAB Synergy produces fast, precise data in an intelligent fashion.
The system is based around our NEW PhotonJet series of microfocus sources. These third generation sources have been designed to maximize X-ray photons at the sample by using a combination of new optics, new, longer life, tubes and an improved alignment system. PhotonJets are available in Cu, Mo or Ag wavelengths in either a single or dual source configuration.
The new kappa goniometer has been completely redesigned to incorporate faster motor speeds and a unique telescopic two-theta arm to provide total flexibility for your diffraction experiment. The goniometer is compatible with the widest range of detectors to suit your needs. CCD or HPC? Your choice.
- Significant improvement in data quality and data collection speed over previous microfocus sealed tube systems
- New high-flux source with longer life X-ray tubes
- Widest range of detectors available – HPC or CCD
- Higher source flux and increased goniometer speed to allow quicker, more agile experiments
- Enhanced kappa goniometer design with symmetrical 2θ positioning
- Unique telescopic two-theta arm to reach both longer and shorter crystal-to-detector distances
- Minimal downtime with longer X-ray tube lifetime – supported by online diagnostics and troubleshooting
- Improved X-ray optic alignment mechanism for easy maintenance
- User-inspired cabinet design for improved workflow
- New electronically controlled brightness of cabinet and crystal lighting
Crystals are regular arrays of atoms, and X-rays can be considered waves of electromagnetic radiation. Atoms scatter X-ray waves, primarily through the atoms’ electrons. Just as an ocean wave striking a lighthouse produces secondary circular waves emanating from the lighthouse, so an X-ray striking an electron produces secondary spherical waves emanating from the electron. This phenomenon is known as elastic scattering, and the electron (or lighthouse) is known as the scatterer. A regular array of scatterers produces a regular array of spherical waves. Although these waves cancel one another out in most directions through destructive interference, they add constructively in a few specific directions, determined by Bragg’s law.X-ray diffraction results from an electromagnetic wave (the X-ray) impinging on a regular array of scatterers (the repeating arrangement of atoms within the crystal).X-rays are used to produce the diffraction pattern because their wavelength is typically the same order of magnitude (1–100 angstroms) as the spacing between planes in the crystal. In principle, any wave impinging on a regular array of scatterers produces diffraction, as predicted first by Francesco Maria Grimaldi in 1665. To produce significant diffraction, the spacing between the scatterers and the wavelength of the impinging wave should be similar in size. For illustration, the diffraction of sunlight through a bird’s feather was first reported by James Gregory in the later 17th century. The first artificial diffraction gratings for visible light were constructed by David Rittenhouse in 1787, and Joseph von Fraunhofer in 1821. However, visible light has too long a wavelength (typically, 5500 angstroms) to observe diffraction from crystals. Prior to the first X-ray diffraction experiments, the spacings between lattice planes in a crystal were not known with certainty.The idea that crystals could be used as a diffraction grating for X-rays arose in 1912 in a conversation between Paul Peter Ewald and Max von Laue in the English Garden in Munich. Ewald had proposed a resonator model of crystals for his thesis, but this model could not be validated using visible light, since the wavelength was much larger than the spacing between the resonators. Von Laue realized that electromagnetic radiation of a shorter wavelength was needed to observe such small spacings, and suggested that X-rays might have a wavelength comparable to the unit-cell spacing in crystals. Von Laue worked with two technicians, Walter Friedrich and his assistant Paul Knipping, to shine a beam of X-rays through a copper sulfate crystal and record its diffraction on a photographic plate. After being developed, the plate showed a large number of well-defined spots arranged in a pattern of intersecting circles around the spot produced by the central beam. Von Laue developed a law that connects the scattering angles and the size and orientation of the unit-cell spacings in the crystal, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914.